There has been recent media coverage regarding the use of Bisphenol A (BPA) to manufacture polycarbonate bottles.

BPA is component in the resin used to make our polycarbonate 11L and 15L bottles along with many other food related packaging including the linings of most canned foods.

In countless studies BPA (at normal low exposure levels) has been shown to be safe for human health. Concerns have mainly centred around the heating of baby bottles in microwaves and the potential effect on infants in particular but not on polycarbonate water bottles.

For more information, download the International Bottled Water Association's (IBWA)

Various Heath References

  • How To Get Well. Airola, P. 1974. Phoenix, AZ: Health Plus Publishers.
  • Alkalinize or Die,   Baroody, Dr. Theodore A. Jr.. California Portal Books, 1995.
  • Staying Healthy with Nutrition Haas, Elson M.. The Complete Guide to Diet & Nutritional Medicine. Berkeley, California:Celestial Arts, 1992; p. 22.
  • Return to the Joy of Health, Rona, Zoltan P. and Martin, Jeanne Marie., Vancouver: Alive Books, 1995.
  • Childhood Illness and The Allergy Connection. Rona, Zoltan P.. Rocklin, California:Prima Books, 1996.

1. We are what we drink…

 Our bodies are nothing but a constant flow of water. 95% of our blood, 75% of our brain, and even 22% of our bones is water. Water like air is essential for the healthy functioning of our body. We can survive several weeks without food, but not more than a few days without water. (Source: Australian Bottled Water Industry website)

Health and nutrition experts recommend we drink at least 2 litres of water every day. Good quality drinking water should provide us with essential minerals and nutrients. Contaminated water can cause disease. 

2. Tap water, is it safe to drink?

Sydney tap water flows through over 20,000 kms of mains pipe before it is drunk; some of these pipelines are more than a century old and are decaying. This makes the water’s journey a perilous one which can add bacteria, heavy metals and other contaminants to the chemical cocktail coming from the treatment plants…..

Please read more in “The Daily Telegraph” August 4 1998 article “Slime On Tap”. In addition to this every year around 80,000 tons of poisonous and reactive chemicals are added to Australia’s drinking water supply to make it safe for human consumption. Tap water is nothing but a “Chemical Cocktail”

Adding chemicals to our drinking water will lead to the same sort of cancer epidemics in Australia they’ve now got in the US. There’s a growing view among environmental scientists that high cancer rates in certain cities relate to the fact that they’ve been drinking a chemical cocktail for the past few decades. – By Professor Harry Recher, Australian, 12 March 1991.

3. Chlorination linked to killer disease.

Chlorine is one of the most reactive elements in nature. It is only found in free form in volcanic gas. Chlorine dissolves in water, to form hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions. Water is chlorinated by adding chlorine gas to it or by adding calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite. Chlorine has been linked to high blood pressure, anemia and diabetes; it contributes to heart disease by causing thickening of the arteries. Chlorine has been added to public drinking water without a study into its harmful effects. The term “chlorinated water” is misleading, as the final product is not water, but a dilute solution of hypochlorous acid.

This reactivity of chlorine is both a blessing and a curse, chlorine kills bacteria, but some of the chlorine reactions can generate potentially hazardous chemicals.

4. By products of chlorination are carcinogenic…

Hundreds of potentially hazardous chemicals and gases are produced when elemental chlorine spontaneously reacts with natural organic contaminants such as decaying leaves, ash from bush fires and pollen present in water. Their organochlorine offspring are known as disinfection byproducts. Several are classified as cancer causing agents or carcinogens. Among these are volatile organic gases or THM’s, these include chloroform, bromoform and bromodichloromethane. Chlorinated tap water has also been linked to cancer, immune disorders, miscarriages and birth abnormalities.

In March 2001 a group of 43 Canadian women formed a THM Victim’s Group to bring a legal action against a city of Chesapeake. Their claims include charges that city and health officials concealed test information on THM levels and failed to provide adequate warning of elevated levels of THM’s in the water and failed to disclose to the public the association between THM’s and miscarriages, still birth and birth defects.

Expert consultant Dwyer Leslie warned Sydney Water in 1991: Available evidence suggests that chlorine by-products may have significant health impact with a role in causation of some cancers (colon and bladder). It is now considered that perhaps THM’s are a lesser problem than Mutagen X (MX), which has a considerable mutagenic potential and wider distribution.

By 1993 experts had learned to test for MX more effectively and expanded their understanding of its effects – Chlorinated drinking water was found to be mutagenic and a number of compounds responsible were identified. One of these, MX, has shown to account for 30-60% of mutagenic activity detected in drinking water… Target organs appear to be bladder, urinary tract and gastro-intestinal tract.

 Q: So what is your safety conscious water authority doing about limiting the formation of MX in your tap water?  … Sydney On Tap by John Archer 1998.


Traces of cancer and psychiatric drugs were found in Britain’s tap water, according to a 100-page report commissioned by the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI).
Despite extensive purification treatments used by water companies, traces of bleomycin, a cancer chemotherapy drug, and diazepam, a sedative, have been found in the drinking water.Though experts say the drug levels are too low to pose a direct health risk, concerns have been raised about exposing pregnant women to the drugs, which could harm an unborn child.

A separate study by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Wallingford, Oxfordshire also revealed that chemotherapy drugs are being washed into Britain’s rivers. The report estimated that an adult who drinks more than three pints of water a day would receive doses of the drugs between 300 and 30,000 times lower than recommended safety levels each week.

drinking water
Still, some experts are worried….."There is not evidence to show that drinking water treatment removes all these drugs, so while we are not wanting to alarm people, it would be foolish to assume there is no risk,” said scientist Andrew Johnson, who led the Wallingford study.
The Telegraph January 13, 2008


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